Clinical Studies / References for Medical Cannabis Treatment

Reference the following studies regarding medicinal cannabis, CBD (cannabidiol) and the treatment objectives proposed.

ADHD Studies and References:


Health Stats Australia

Association of the Cannabinoid Receptor Gene (CNR1) with ADHD and post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD, Lu et. al. (2008 Dec.)

Cannabis Improves Symptoms of ADHD, P. Strohbeck-Kuehner and al., Cannabinoids (2008 Mar.)

Subtypes of Attention Deficit — Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and cannabis use (PubMed)

Searching for a Neurobiological Basis for Self-Medication Theory in ADHD Comorbid With Substance Use Disorders (Pub Med)

Cannabidiol and clozapine reverse MK-801-induced deficits in social interaction and hyperactivity in Sprague-Dawley rats (PubMed)

Childhood and current ADHD symptom dimensions are associated with more severe cannabis outcomes in college students (PubMed)

Oral delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol improved refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in an adolescent by increasing intracortical inhibition: A case report (PubMed)


AIDs / HIV Studies and References

Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy

Cannabis Use in HIV for Pain and Other Medical Symptoms

Marijuana Use and Its Association With Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-Infected Persons With Moderate to Severe Nausea

Pharmacological Treatment of Painful HIV-Associated Sensory Neuropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials

ALS / MND Studies and References

Changes in Endocannabinoid Receptors and Enzymes in the Spinal Cord of SOD1G93A Transgenic Mice and Evaluation of a Sativex®-like Combination of Phytocannabinoids: Interest for Future Therapies in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Medical Marijuana Utilization and Perceived Therapeutic Value in Patients with ALS (P3.014)

Alzheimer’s Disease Studies and References:

Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology by Cannabinoids: Neuroprotection Mediated by Blockade of Microglial Activation (2005)

The therapeutic potential of the endocannabinoid system for Alzheimer’s disease.(2012)

Cannabidiol and other cannabinoids reduce microglial activation in vitro and in vivo: relevance to Alzheimer’s disease.

Activation of the CB2 receptor system reverses amyloid-induced memory deficiency

Marijuana’s Active Ingredient Shown to Inhibit Primary Marker of Alzheimer’s Disease

Cannabinoids for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: moving toward the clinic

Nonpsychotropic Cannabinoid Receptors RegulateMicroglial Cell Migration

Anorexia Nervosa Studies and References:

Leptin, ghrelin, and endocannabinoids: Potential therapeutic targets in anorexia nervosa (PubMed)

The role of the endocannabinoid system in eating disorders: Neurochemical and behavioural preclinical evidence (PubMed)

Anxiety and Depression Studies and References:

Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an anxiolytic drug (PubMed)

Antidepressant-Like and Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Cannabidiol: A Chemical Compound of Cannabis Sativa (PubMed)

Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naïve social phobia patients (PubMed)

Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder (PubMed)

Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: A review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence (PubMed)

Arthritis Studies and References:

Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis (PubMed)

The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis (PubMed)

Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in osteoarthritis pain (PubMed)

Asthma Studies and References:

Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: Role for the adenosine A2A receptor

The role of cannabinoids in inflammatory modulation of allergic respiratory disorders, inflammatory pain and ischemic stroke (PubMed)

 Allergen challenge increases anandamide in bronchoalveolar fluid of patients with allergic asthma (PubMed)

Bronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol (PubMed)

Autism Spectrum Disorder Studies and References:

Mutations found in individuals with autism interfere with endocannabinoid signaling in the brain (Science Daily)

Cannabinoid receptor type 2, but not type 1, is up-regulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of children affected by autistic disorders (PubMed)

A novel approach to the symptomatic treatment of autism (Lester Grinspoon M.D., O’Shaughnessy’s)

Consequences of cannabinoid and monoaminergic system disruption in a mouse model of autism spectrum disorders (PubMed)

Targeting the endocannabinoid system in the treatment of fragile X syndrome (PubMed)

Autism Spectrum Disorders

Cancer Studies and References:

Enhancing the activity of cannabidiol and other cannabinoids in vitro through modifications to drug combinations and treatment schedules.

Scott KA, Shah S, Dalgleish AG, Liu WM. Anticancer Res. 2013 Oct;33(10):4373-80.

Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug.

Massi P, Solinas M, Cinquina V, Parolaro D. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Feb;75(2):303-12

Cannabidiol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid Compound, Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion in U87-MG and T98G Glioma Cells through a Multitarget Effect.

Solinas M, Massi P, Cinquina V, Valenti M, Bolognini D, Gariboldi M, Monti E, Rubino T, Parolaro D. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 21;8(10):e76918.

Cannabinoids: a new hope for breast cancer therapy?

Caffarel MM, Andradas C, Pérez-Gómez E, Guzmán M, Sánchez C. Cancer Treat Rev. 2012 Nov;38(7):911-8

Towards the use of cannabinoids as antitumour agents.

Velasco G, Sánchez C, Guzmán M. Nat Rev Cancer. 2012 May 4;12(6):436-44.

Cannabidiol inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms.

Solinas M, Massi P, Cantelmo AR, Cattaneo MG, Cammarota R, Bartolini D, Cinquina V, Valenti M, Vicentini LM, Noonan DM, Albini A, Parolaro D. Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Nov;167(6):1218-31.

Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer.

Aviello G, Romano B, Borrelli F, Capasso R, Gallo L, Piscitelli F, Di Marzo V, Izzo AA. J Mol Med (Berl). 2012 Aug;90(8):925-34.

A combined preclinical therapy of cannabinoids and temozolomide against glioma.

Torres S, Lorente M, Rodríguez-Fornés F, Hernández-Tiedra S, Salazar M, García-Taboada E, Barcia J, Guzmán M, Velasco G. Mol Cancer Ther. 2011 Jan;10(1):90-103.

Stimulation of the midkine/ALK axis renders glioma cells resistant to cannabinoid antitumoral action.

Lorente M, Torres S, Salazar M, Carracedo A, Hernández-Tiedra S, Rodríguez-Fornés F, García-Taboada E, Meléndez B, Mollejo M, Campos-Martín Y, Lakatosh SA, Barcia J, Guzmán M, Velasco G. Cell Death Differ. 2011 Jun;18(6):959-73.

Pathways mediating the effects of cannabidiol on the reduction of breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis.

McAllister SD, Murase R, Christian RT, Lau D, Zielinski AJ, Allison J, Almanza C, Pakdel A, Lee J, Limbad C, Liu Y, Debs RJ, Moore DH, Desprez PY. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011 Aug;129(1):37-47.

The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 promotes cancer cell proliferation via ERK.

Andradas C, Caffarel MM, Pérez-Gómez E, Salazar M, Lorente M, Velasco G, Guzmán M, Sánchez C. Oncogene. 2011 Jan 13;30(2):245-52

Cannabinoids reduce ErbB2-driven breast cancer progression through Akt inhibition.

Caffarel MM, Andradas C, Mira E, Pérez-Gómez E, Cerutti C, Moreno-Bueno G, Flores JM, García-Real I, Palacios J, Mañes S, Guzmán M, Sánchez C. Mol Cancer. 2010 Jul 22;9:196

Molecular mechanisms involved in the antitumor activity of cannabinoids on gliomas: role for oxidative stress.

Massi P, Valenti M, Solinas M, Parolaro D. Cancers (Basel). 2010 May 26;2(2):1013-26.

Cannabinoid action induces autophagy-mediated cell death through stimulation of ER stress in human glioma cells.

Salazar M, Carracedo A, Salanueva IJ, Hernández-Tiedra S, Lorente M, Egia A, Vázquez P, Blázquez C, Torres S, García S, Nowak J, Fimia GM, Piacentini M, Cecconi F, Pandolfi PP, González-Feria L, Iovanna JL, Guzmán M, Boya P, Velasco G. J Clin Invest. 2009 May;119(5):1359-72.

Cannabinoids in intestinal inflammation and cancer.

Izzo AA, Camilleri M. Pharmacol Res. 2009 Aug;60(2):117-25.

Cannabinoids as potential new therapy for the treatment of gliomas.

Parolaro D, Massi P. Expert Rev Neurother. 2008 Jan;8(1):37-49.

Cannabinoids inhibit glioma cell invasion by down-regulating matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression.

Blázquez C, Salazar M, Carracedo A, Lorente M, Egia A, González-Feria L, Haro A, Velasco G, Guzmán M. Cancer Res. 2008 Mar 15;68(6):1945-52.

Cannabinoids and gliomas.

Velasco G, Carracedo A, Blázquez C, Lorente M, Aguado T, Haro A, Sánchez C, Galve-Roperh I, Guzmán M. Mol Neurobiol. 2007 Aug;36(1):60-7.

Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells.

McAllister SD, Christian RT, Horowitz MP, Garcia A, Desprez PY. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007 Nov;6(11):2921-7.

Cannabinoids induce glioma stem-like cell differentiation and inhibit gliomagenesis.

Aguado T, Carracedo A, Julien B, Velasco G, Milman G, Mechoulam R, Alvarez L, Guzmán M, Galve-Roperh I. J Biol Chem. 2007 Mar 2;282(9):6854-62.

Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits cell cycle progression in human breast cancer cells through Cdc2 regulation.

Caffarel MM, Sarrió D, Palacios J, Guzmán M, Sánchez C. Cancer Res. 2006 Jul 1;66(13):6615-21.

A pilot clinical study of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme.

Guzmán M, Duarte MJ, Blázquez C, Ravina J, Rosa MC, Galve-Roperh I, Sánchez C, Velasco G, González-Feria L. Br J Cancer. 2006 Jul 17;95(2):197-203.

COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) Studies and References:

Cannabinoid effects on ventilation and breathlessness: a pilot study of efficacy and safety.

Endocannabinoid anandamide mediates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

Crohn’s Disease Studies and References:

Cannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s

High incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Australia: a prospective population-based Australian incidence study.

 Cannabis finds its way into treatment of Crohn’s disease (PubMed)

Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, is protective in a murine model of colitis (PubMed)

Diabetes Studies and References:

The cannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) ameliorates insulin sensitivity in two mouse models of obesity.

The endocannabinoid system in energy homeostasis and the etiopathology of metabolic disorders.

Cannabinoids and Endocannabinoids in Metabolic Disorders with Focus on Diabetes

Peripheral effects of the endocannabinoid system in energy homeostasis: adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle.

Cannabidiol arrests onset of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

Endocrine Disorder Studies and References:
Endocannabinoid system participates in neuroendocrine control of homeostasis (PubMed)

Role of the endocannabinoid system in food intake, energy homeostasis and regulation of the endocrine pancreas (PubMed)

Endocannabinoids in endocrine and related tumours (PubMed)

The role of the endocannabinoid system in the neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance (PubMed)

Epilepsy Studies and References:

Cannabidiol: pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

Pure cannabidiol in the treatment of malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy: a case report.

Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use in pediatric treatment-resistant epilepsy.

Fibromyalgia Studies and References:

Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD): can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions?

Cannabis use in patients with fibromyalgia: effect on symptoms relief and health-related quality of life.

Cardiovascular and Heart Disease Studies and References:

Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol? (PubMed)

Acute administration of cannabidiol in vivo suppresses ischaemia-induced cardiac arrhythmias and reduces infarct size when given at reperfusion (PubMed)

Cannabidiol attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy (PubMed)

IBD – Inflammatory Bowel Disease Studies and References:

Cannabis for inflammatory bowel disease.

High incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Australia: a prospective population-based Australian incidence study.

Inflammation Studies and References:

Cannabidiol in inflammatory bowel diseases: a brief overview.

Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease.

Cannabinoids mediate opposing effects on inflammation-induced intestinal permeability.

Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis.

Impact of cannabis treatment on the quality of life, weight and clinical disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease patients: a pilot prospective study.

Neuropathic Pain Studies and References:

The endocannabinoid system, cannabinoids, and pain. Rambam Maimonides medical journal, 4(4).

Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC: CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain.Journal of pain and symptom management, 39(2), 167-179.

The Role of Cannabinoids in Regulation of Nausea and Vomiting, and Visceral Pain. 

Role of the cannabinoid system in pain control and therapeutic implications for the management of acute and chronic pain episodes. Current neuropharmacology, 4(3), 239.

Cannabinoid receptors and pain. Progress in neurobiology, 63(5), 569-611.

OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder) Studies and References:

Plasma and brain pharmacokinetic profile of cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarine (CBDV), Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabigerol (CBG) in rats and mice following oral and intraperitoneal administration and CBD action on obsessive-compulsive behaviour.

Osteoporosis Studies and References:

Cannabinoid receptors as target for treatment of osteoporosis: A tale of two therapies (PubMed)

Cannabinoid receptor type 1 protects against age-related osteoporosis by regulating osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation in marrow stromal cells (PubMed)

Cannabinoids and bone: Friend or foe? (PubMed)

The endovanilloid/endocannabinoid system in human osteoclasts: Possible involvement in bone formation and resorption (PubMed)

Endocannabinoids and the regulation of bone metabolism (PubMed)

Cannabinoid receptors and the regulation of bone mass (PubMed)

Targeting the endocannabinoid system with cannabinoid receptor agonists: pharmacological strategies and therapeutic possibilities.

Parkinson’s Disease Studies and References:

Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial (PubMed)

Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders (PubMed)

Cannabinoids provide neuroprotection against 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity in vivo and in vitro: relevance to Parkinson’s disease (PubMed)

Cannabidiol can improve complex sleep-related behaviours associated with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson’s disease patients: a case series (PubMed)

Cannabidiol for the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease (PubMed)

PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) Studies and References:

Mitigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms by Cannabis resin: A review of the clinical and neurobiological evidence (PubMed)

Enhancing cannabinoid neurotransmission augments the extinction of conditioned fear (PubMed)

Modulation of Fear Memory by Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids via Cannabinoid Receptors (PubMed)

Cannabidiol blocks long-lasting behavioral consequences of predator threat stress: Possible involvement of 5HT1A receptors (PubMed)

Stress switches cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor-dependent plasticity from LTD to LTP in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (PubMed)


Multiple Sclerosis Studies and References:

Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial.

Neuroprotection in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis and Progressive Multiple Sclerosis by Cannabis-Based Cannabinoids.(PubMed)

Multiple Sclerosis International Federation. What is MS? London: Multiple Sclerosis International Federation [cited 16 Nov 2011].

Cannabinoids inhibit neurodegeneration in models of multiple sclerosis(PubMed)

Convance & Menzies Research Institute. Economic impact of multiple sclerosis in 2010: Australian MS Longitudinal Study. Prepared for MS Research Australia. North Ryde: Convance Pty Ltd; 2011.(PubMed)

Taylor BV, Lucas R, Dear K, Kilpatrick TJ, Pender MP, van der Mei IAF, et al. Latitudinal variance in incidence and type of first central nervous system demyelinating events. Multiple sclerosis 2010; 16(4):398-405. (PubMed)

Cannabinoids ameliorate disease progression in a model of multiple sclerosis in mice, acting preferentially through CB1 receptor-mediated anti-inflammatory effects.(PubMed)

Oromucosal delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: An uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial (PubMed)